This guide provides a broad collection of field service management metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs). Learn which measurements work best for your business, how to monitor them and what actions to take to improve performance.
What Are Field Service Metrics?
Field service metrics are measurements about the performance of work conducted for customers offsite of company property. They provide quantifiable data about field service activities. Field service metrics help to identify key performance indicators (KPIs).
What Are Field Service Key Performance Indicators?
Field service KPIs are critical indicators of how well field service operations are being performed. Popular KPIs include service efficiency, customer satisfaction and downtime and provide insight into how well field service teams contribute to company objectives.
- Field service KPIs and metrics measure the performance of the field service team.
- Most field service measurements focus on customer satisfaction, business performance or efficiency.
- When defining metrics, it’s crucial to fully understand business objectives and how the field service team contributes to these goals.
- Identify important metrics before gathering data in a field service management solution. You don’t want to be limited by old metrics that are not applicable to new business processes.
Field Service Key Performance Indicators Categories
Field service management KPIs inform decision-making around deploying, managing and measuring field service teams. Each KPI falls into one of three categories: service efficiency, customer satisfaction or business performance.
Service efficiency: These KPIs include metrics that reveal job completion time, repeat visits and repair rates. Service efficiency KPIs are typically time-related. For example, you might use these KPIs to identify areas where increased training can improve repair times. They may also point out how reducing time spent at jobs in the field increases service efficiency or how resolving scheduling issues can improve response rates.
ReSource Point of Sale (POS) knows first-hand how the complexities of office, staff and new partnerships can stress field service efficiency. It was able to achieve a return on investment from field service software in three months by monitoring and acting upon service efficiency KPIs.
Customer satisfaction: These KPIs demonstrate how satisfied customers are before, during and after service. Customer satisfaction KPIs include the customer retention rate and how likely they will recommend your service to others (commonly referred to as Net Promoter Score). These KPIs are generally produced by gathering and analyzing customer feedback and comparing the results to industry benchmarks or the competition’s numbers.
Intimus International considers customer satisfaction a leading KPI for identifying improvement opportunities. With field service management software it reduced dispatch time by over 200 hours per week so it could provide better customer service.
Business performance: Business performance KPIs focus on costs, growth and revenue. Business performance KPIs may factor in multiple metrics from the other categories. These key performance indicators should be well-defined and quantifiable. Communicate these measurements in a meaningful way to departments and decision-makers to improve operations.
The Top 15 Field Service Metrics and Key Performance Indicators
Field service managers have access to more data than ever before. Below are 15 metrics that will provide insight into field service team performance and help leaders make more informed decisions.
Mean time to complete a job measures the average time it takes to complete a field service activity. It is one of the most common field service management measurements. Managers use this KPI to understand the efficiency and productivity of their employees. When it comes to task assignment and scheduling, workforce planning KPIs can play an important role.
Mean time-to-completion = Total time spent on jobs/Number of jobs
Average Response TimeAverage response time measures the average time it takes to respond to a service call. You can drill down to understand response time by employee, department or service type.
Average response time = Total time to respond/Number of responses
Average Repair Time
Average repair time is an efficiency measurement that is commonly applied across inventory, shipping and sales departments. Repair times provide management with valuable data that indicates productivity and ways to increase customer satisfaction.
Average repair time = Total time taken for repairs/Number of repairs
First-time Fix Rate
Use the first-time fix rate when assessing customer service and operational efficiency. This measurement allows decision-makers to identify high-performing teams and employees. They can also use it to pinpoint areas for improvement like training, ordering parts and scheduling repairs.
First-time fix rate = Number of service calls not requiring a second visit/Total number of service calls
Number of Repeat Visits
This KPI goes hand in hand with the first-time fix rate. This metric is easily quantifiable and extremely valuable in measuring operational efficiency and customer satisfaction rates. You generally want to reduce repeat visits, with the exception of sales calls or scheduled routine maintenance.
Repeat visits = Total number of repeat visits
Average Travel Time, Distance and Cost
Average travel time, distance and cost are important metrics for any field service management team. They are vital for scheduling, task matching and measuring employee performance. For example, these metrics are useful for determining the value of flying vs. driving.
Average travel time = Total travel
time/Total service calls
Average distance = Total distance/Total service calls
Average cost = Total cost/Total service calls
Measuring technician utilization is key to identifying employee productivity and simplifying quotes and billing. Using software to track time spent on various tasks, such as material installation, helps a business understand how much time technicians are spending “on the job” versus filling out paperwork or in transit.
Technician utilization = Hours on field service task/Total hours worked
Customer Retention Rate
Another crucial KPI for business growth is customer retention rate. Retaining customers drives repeat business and also helps establish a brand and attract new customers. This metric is related to customer satisfaction.
Customer retention rate = Number of customers at end of a period/Total number of customers
Customer Acquisition Cost
Customer acquisition cost provides insight into business efficiency and areas for improvement. By measuring the expense of finding a new customer who uses your product or service, you can direct resources to different departments to lower costs or improve innovation and efficiency.
Customer acquisition cost = Total costs acquiring new customers in a given period/Number of new customers in a given period
Contract Attach Rate
Contract attach rate shows the percentage of sales that have a service contract to go along with them. It identifies potential one-time and recurring revenue streams and contributes to more accurate forecasts. This metric also helps your sales department focus on key customer concerns and improve incentives to entice customers to sign a contract.
Contract attach rate = Number of customers (products) with a contract/Total number of customers (products)
Managers use the contract uptime KPI in conjunction with service-level agreements (SLAs) to improve customer satisfaction, retention and sales. Uptime may refer to a service being on (the internet, for example) or a performance guarantee. The higher the uptime, the better.
Uptime = Total time service is up/Total time
SLA Compliance Rate
Service-level agreements define performance expectations and reassure customers. The SLA compliance rate demonstrates how well the company is meeting service levels dictated in the contract with the customer. The SLA compliance rate impacts service efficiency, customer satisfaction and business performance. Falling below the rate can result in fees or customer credits.
SLA compliance rate = Number of repairs that met SLA/Total number of repairs
Contract and Revenue Leakage
Revenue leakage is unnoticed revenue that’s lost due to under-billing or not billing customers. This metric is essential to a company’s bottom line and you can greatly reduce it with monitoring and reporting.
Revenue leakage = Actual revenue – expected revenue
Job/Service ProfitabilityHow profitable are the jobs or services you provide? Use this KPI to identify costs and where/how to lower or increase service prices. Managers apply this profitability metric across products, services and locations to improve service delivery.
Job/Service profitability = (Revenue – expenses)
Organizations can segment their field services-specific figures to calculate how well it’s growing compared to the rest of the business. KPIs such as monthly sales growth, product performance, net profit and net margin can effectively measure field services business growth
What Are Key Performance Indicators for Maintenance?
Maintenance KPIs focus on maintaining equipment and services without compromising SLAs. The primary goal is to minimize customer disruption. These KPIs include mean time-to-repair, maintenance backlog, mean-time-between-failures and equipment uptime.
Mean Time-to-Repair (MTTR)
Mean time-to-repair measures the average time it takes to repair malfunctioning equipment. Measure from the start of the downtime until the machinery returns to proper working order. Use this KPI to identify underlying root causes of long repair times.
Mean time-to-repair = Total time spent on unplanned maintenance/Number of failures
The maintenance backlog is the total list of approved work that isn’t finished. Tracking and completing this backlog helps prevent dangerous equipment malfunctions, failures and costly damage. Reducing the backlog can also boost employee utilization and customer satisfaction.
Maintenance backlog = Total time it takes to complete backlogged maintenance tasks
Mean Time-Between-Failures (MTBF)
MTBF measures the average time between one equipment failure and the next. The longer that time frame, the better. Equipment that fails often points to a performance or design issue that may require equipment replacement.
Mean time-between-failures = Total uptime/Number of failures
Equipment uptime measures the availability of the equipment. The higher the uptime percentage, the more reliable the equipment. For example, a manufacturer wants as high an equipment uptime percentage as possible because downtime results in lost revenue.
Equipment uptime percentage = Equipment run time/Total available run time*100
Field Service Technician Metrics
Idle time, travel miles and visits per day are a few of the most popular field service technician performance metrics. Below are nine important metrics that you can use to monitor goals and activity and identify improvement opportunities.
|Field visits per field engineer per day||This metric looks at the average number of customer visits by a field service engineer per day. The KPI is critical for scheduling and performance reviews.|
|Average miles travel by field service worker||Divide the total number of miles traveled by a field service employee by the number of site visits. Use this KPI to review cost controls and employee performance.|
|Field services technician idle time||This measures the amount of time a field service technician is not working. You may use this KPI to identify lackluster employees or other problem areas (waiting for supplies for example).|
|Mean-time-to-repair (MTTR)||This calculation is the average time it takes for a repair. The KPI is useful for measuring SLAs/customer service and satisfaction.|
|Service contract attach rate||This KPI measures the rate at which customers sign contracts for a particular product or service. Customer retention and business growth depend on this metric.|
|Percentage of expired warranties converted to maintenance contracts||Divide how many expired warranties end up in a maintenance contract by the total number of expired warranties. Use this KPI to measure customer satisfaction and business growth.|
|Increase average ticket price||The increase in the average ticket price over a given period. KPI used for cost containment and inventory management.|
|Emergency parts order costs||Calculate the costs involved when parts are ordered during emergencies. Defining emergencies is essential to using this KPI.|
|Percentage of ordered parts that are returned unused||Divide the number of unused/returned parts by the total number of parts provided. This KPI is an indicator of supplier effectiveness and inventory management.|
Field Service Dispatcher and Scheduler Metrics
Scheduling and dispatch metrics provide insight that originates with the first call through scheduling the service. These metrics help identify areas where you can improve dispatch performance.
|Ratio of engineers to schedulers||Measure the total number of engineers divided by the number of people scheduling. This KPI can help define a more perfect ratio, so you can employ resources effectively.|
|Number of fields service tickets/tasks closed by dispatcher||This formula measures the total number of tickets or tasks completed by a field service tech over a given period of time. This KPI is helpful for business and employee performance.|
|Average number of phone calls between field service worker/technician and dispatcher||Divide the total number of phone calls between a field service employee and a technician or scheduler by a given period (day, month, year). This KPI can help identify more useful ways to use software and apps for example.|
|Reschedule ratio||Divide the number of site visits that need to be rescheduled by the total number of scheduled site visits. Use this metric to improve scheduling software and customer needs.|
Field Service Manager Metrics
Field service manager metrics help management teams recognize field service management problems and successes. SLA performance, first-visit resolution and mean time-to-complete are a few of the most popular management metrics here.
|Percentage of field service visits completed within SLA||The completed field service rate within the SLA. Use the KPI to manage resources and employees as well as better define SLAs.|
|Average number of work orders closed per day||The number of closed work orders divided by the total number of work orders per day. This KPI is helpful for scheduling and customer service.|
|Percentage of problems resolved on first visit||First-time fix rate is the number of site visits resolved or completed on the first visit divided by the total number of site visits. Essential KPI for customer retention purposes as well as employee performance.|
|Mean time to complete||The average time to complete a site visit or task can be applied to employees, customers, parts, locations, etc. Extremely effective for several departments and decision makers.|
|Number of vehicles used by field services||Use this KPI to show how many vehicles a specific employee uses or what services various vehicles require. The data can lead to improved scheduling and vehicle innovations (carrying hardware, device, parts are on board).|
|Percentage of preventive maintenance work to reactive work||The amount of time spent on preventative maintenance vs. the amount of time spent in the field responding to customer calls, emergencies, etc. Use this KPI to manage resources and allocate inventory.|
|Fields service employee retention||How long do field service employees stay with the company? This metric indicates management likeability, incentive structures and work conditions.|
How to Choose the Right Field Service Metrics
Identifying field service metrics that are most closely tied to broader business goals will have the most impact on your organization. Focus on KPIs that improve the customer experience, increase revenue through upsell opportunities and increase operational efficiency.
Consider the following questions when defining your field service metrics:
Do your field service goals align with business objectives?
Aligning field service goals with overall business objectives is essential. High-growth companies may be more focused on volume and customer satisfaction while mature businesses could prioritize profitability. Choose metrics that demonstrate when you reach these goals.
What data is accessible?
An organization must first define essential metrics so managers know what to track. Ensure your field service software can capture in real time the data you need to report on these metrics. Having the most accurate, dependable data will give management the analyses and metrics it needs to make informed decisions.
Is the metric actionable?
Quantifiable metrics may look good, but taking action on them is vital. If you measure something that is useless or you cannot improve, you’re wasting your time.
Planning Your Field Service Metrics
Plan your metrics by understanding the following: Who are the recipients of the data? Do they need the metrics daily, weekly or monthly? Is the data available from a single source or multiple sources?
Consider the following when planning for field service metrics:
- Locate the necessary data: Once you define your metrics, you must identify where to pull the data from. Ideally, it’s all in a single system, but it could reside in multiple repositories. If you do not already track the data, determine the tool and mechanisms you will use to collect it.
- Disseminate information to the right people: More data may sound great, but you don’t want your decision-makers to get bogged down in useless reports and dashboards. Consolidated and configurable dashboards that are easy to access are perfect for providing the right information at the right time to the field service management team and stakeholders.
- Communicate goals clearly to field service workers: Your field service employees need to understand the expectations and goals you set forth. Without these, workers become stagnant and are less likely to meet objectives.
Tracking and Reporting Field Service Metrics
Software solutions that collect and track data are the most effective at monitoring and measuring success. Access to this data helps improve planning, forecasting and budgeting.
Identify, track, report and analyze the proper field service metrics for your business. Any of these actions alone are not impactful. For example, reporting on customer satisfaction rate is by itself not so powerful, but analyzing customer feedback to identify improvement opportunities and then make changes is useful.
What Are Field Service Analytics?
Field service analytics is the analysis of the field service data you collect. Many software solutions automate this process. The following tips will guide data analytics for smarter decision-making.
- Simplify data capture: Capturing data can be time-consuming. Establish a process for collecting, organizing and accessing only the data you need.
- Automate metrics reporting: Evaluate existing reporting capabilities and use as much automation as possible. Automation reduces the amount of time field service techs, managers and others spend on reporting and delivers more accurate results.
Field Service Dashboards
A field service dashboard is a visually appealing consolidation of essential, real-time KPIs. It can be customized to meet the needs of the user, whether technician, manager or customer. The dashboard's data inputs are from a single or multiple repositories.
Field Service Dashboard Examples
Dashboard content will vary by company and department. However, we can provide a sample of useful field service management dashboards.
Service Efficiency Dashboard
A service efficiency dashboard may include data that looks at the average time to complete a job over the last month compared to the previous year, the average cost per job per location and repeat visit vs. first-time fixes. This type of dashboard provides a field service manager with meaningful data to reroute resources or adjust schedules. Each metric should link to the detailed data to enable further analysis.
Customer Satisfaction Dashboard
A customer satisfaction dashboard may include SLA compliance rate, a visual for customer retention rates and a snapshot of customer feedback so you can see what customers have to say. This data provides a general overview of customer satisfaction and a way to dig deeper and gain more insightful information to improve customer satisfaction.
Business Growth Dashboard
A monthly sales graph, month-over-month profit and loss and year-over-year income are the most likely candidates to include in a business growth dashboard for field service organizations. A simple table showing customer retention rates, new customers and contract attachments may also be useful for service leaders.
Field Service Technician Dashboard
Your field service technicians thrive on information. MTTR, idle time and average miles per site visit provide field service technicians and their managers with basic data they can use to assess their performance. The dashboard could include overall averages to compare and compete with other technicians.
Field Service Management Software for KPI Tracking
Data fuels KPIs. These metrics drive growth and greater business efficiency. Collecting that information is not feasible, or at least extremely time-consuming, without field service management software. Using integrated field service management software to gather, analyze and report metrics gets your team focused on what matters most: organizational goals.
Download our checklist for selecting field service management software
How NetSuite Helps You Track Field Service Metrics KPIs and Metrics
Monitoring field service management KPIs sheds light on what is wrong, what is right and how to improve operations. Not only do they measure how your field services organization performs, but also how these repair and maintenance activities tie back to your manufacturing, sales and distribution practices. NetSuite's professional services automation (PSA) solution ensures increased visibility into your services, improved resource utilization, streamlined invoicing and billing, elevated on-time project delivery and increased profitability.